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Page 63 Cite as: 597 U. S. ____ (2022) Opinion of the Court The Second Amendment guaranteed to “all Americans” the right to bear commonly used arms in public subject to certain reasonable, well-defined restrictions. Heller, 554 U. S., at 581. Those restrictions, for example, limited the intent for which one could carry arms, the manner by which one carried arms, or the exceptional circumstances under which one could not carry arms, such as before justices of the peace and other government officials. Apart from a few late-19th- century outlier jurisdictions, American governments simply have not broadly prohibited the public carry of commonly used firearms for personal defense. Nor, subject to a few late-in-time outliers, have American governments required law-abiding, responsible citizens to “demonstrate a special need for self-protection distinguishable from that of the general community” in order to carry arms in public. Klenosky, 75 App. Div., at 793, 428 N. Y. S. 2d, at 257. IV The constitutional right to bear arms in public for self- defense is not “a second-class right, subject to an entirely different body of rules than the other Bill of Rights guarantees.” McDonald, 561 U. S., at 780 (plurality opinion). We know of no other constitutional right that an individual may exercise only after demonstrating to government officers some special need. That is not how the First Amendment works when it comes to unpopular speech or the free exercise of religion. It is not how the Sixth Amendment works when it comes to a defendant’s right to confront the witnesses against him. And it is not how the Second Amendment works when it comes to public carry for self- defense. New York’s proper-cause requirement violates the Four- teenth Amendment in that it prevents law-abiding citizens with ordinary self-defense needs from exercising their right to keep and bear arms. We therefore reverse the judgment of the Court of Appeals and remand the case for further pro- ceedings consistent with this opinion. It is so ordered.


A journey is an act of traveling from one place to another. Ralph Waldo Emerson once said, “Life is a journey, not a destination.”

In February of 2024, fellow NYSRPA Board Member and NRA Board Member John Cushman finished his journey on Earth.

During his long journey, he made a positive impact on so many lives.

We will never forget the lessons John taught us, the strategies and tactics he showed us and the encouragement he gave us as we found our way in the community of gun owners and sportsmen.

All this time, he was training us to carry on when his journey came to an end.

John was fierce and intense when it came to the right to keep and bear arms. He ruffled more than a few feathers along the way, not being afraid to question and challenge policies that he believed were doomed to fail or detrimental to the cause. He also stood up in staunch support of other policies that would protect, promote and preserve the Second Amendment.

When he said something, it was worth listening to and repeating because it was based on careful study of resources and consideration of factual information.

On most grave markers, there is at least a birth year and a death year with a dash in the middle.

A minister once spoke of the length of the dash - some are very short, some are very long, but there is always a dash. The dash, of course, referring to the length of our own lives. He also spoke of what we do with our dash - did we make the most out of our dash or did we let life just drift on by?

That line belongs to each one of us to use it as we see fit. I am certain that John’s line will have the notation of


and friend and teacher to the countless.

Once again it is time to stand up and be heard!

President Biden called on Chuck Schumer and the U.S. Senate to take up and pass gun 
control bills H.R. 8 and H.R. 1446. This legislation won't have any impact on crime or 
criminals, doesn't address America's broken mental health system and doesn't address the 
underlying causes of violence.

H.R. 8 would criminalize the private transfer of firearms and targets law-abiding gun 
owners for persecution. It would make criminals out of law abiding gun owners for simply 
loaning a firearm to a friend or some family members.

This bill would not stop criminals from obtaining guns because criminals do not comply 
with the law. And the legislation would be unenforceable without federal gun 
H.R. 1446 would allow unelected government bureaucrats to indefinitely delay firearm 
purchases for law-abiding Americans - depriving them of the ability to defend themselves 
and their families.

The U.S. Senate could vote on this legislation in the coming weeks!
That's why it's important to make your voice heard, please contact your U.S. Senators 

This action alert was sent to NRA members this morning and we felt it was worth 
repeating! We urge our membership to light up their phones in Albany and DC!

We appreciate your help & support!

The following Bill was/is introduced in the House of Representatives.  If passed it would 
make New York State better than we can make it on our own.

H.R. 38 Would End Patchwork of Confusing Gun Law for CC Permit Holders
NEWTOWN, Conn. – NSSF®, the firearm industry’s trade association, hailed U.S. Rep. 
Richard Hudson’s (R-N.C.) introduction of the Concealed Carry Reciprocity Act of 2021, 
H.R. 38, on the first day of the 117th Congress. The legislation was introduced with 
bipartisan support and 154 original co-sponsors, demonstrating the wide-ranging support 
for protecting law-abiding concealed carry permit holders from navigating a patchwork of 
varying gun control laws when crossing a state line.

The bill aims to eliminate the confusion of varying state-by-state laws and provide 
protection for Second Amendment rights for permit holders. The legislation would allow 
handgun owners who are legally permitted and authorized by their home state to carry a 
concealed firearm in other states while complying with the laws of each state – much in 
the same way a driver’s license is recognized.

“This legislation provides an answer to the confusing patchwork of laws surrounding 
concealed carry permits, particularly with regard to states where laws make unwitting 
criminals out of legal permit holders for a simple mistake of a wrong traffic turn,” said 
Lawrence Keane, NSSF Senior Vice President and General Counsel. “It safeguards a state’s 
right to determine their own laws while protecting the Second Amendment rights of all 
Americans. We thank Rep. Hudson for his leadership on behalf of America’s hunters and 
recreational shooters.” 

“Our Second Amendment rights do not disappear when we cross state lines, and H.R. 38 
guarantees that,” said Rep. Hudson. “The Concealed Carry Reciprocity Act of 2021 is a 
common sense solution to provide law-abiding citizens the right to conceal carry and 
travel freely between states without worrying about conflicting state codes or onerous 
civil suits. I am especially proud to have such widespread and bipartisan support for 
this measure and will work with my colleagues to get this legislation over the finish 

Unlike other rights protected by the U.S. Constitution, the right to keep and bear arms 
is regulated differently by individual states. While individual rights to speech, 
religion and protections of Due Process or Search and Seizure are constant, gun rights 
vary according to the state. Reciprocity agreements exist, but not between all states and 
are ever-changing. That puts individuals at risk of running afoul of varying 
state-by-state laws when traveling and crossing borders.

The pitfalls of these varying state-by-state laws were exposed when Philadelphia resident 
Shaneen Allen faced up to five years in prison for bringing a firearm into New Jersey in 
2013. She held a valid license to carry in Pennsylvania, but not in neighboring New 
Jersey. The mother-of-two voluntarily told a law enforcement officer of the firearm 
during a traffic stop, but was still arrested, charged, convicted and spent 48 days in 
jail – all for having made a wrong turn and accidentally crossing state line. 
Fortunately, after an 18-month legal ordeal, Republican Gov. Chris Christie pardoned 
Allen. Others are not so lucky.

NYSAFE's Message 

The single greatest threat to our Constitutional rights to own and use firearms in America is Joe Biden-Kamala Harris and the Democratic Party. The single greatest safeguard against his and his parties agenda is an educated and engaged voter in the voting booth, and that is you. “Joe Biden blatantly called the firearm industry ‘the enemy’ from the debate stage. His agenda to restrict the lawful means for Americans to exercise their Second Amendment right is a grave danger to our God-given rights and our civil liberties. All Americans must understand the unconstitutional overreach he would enact to obliterate firearm businesses across America.”

The Biden-Harris gun control agenda would not only prevent law-abiding citizens from owning and using guns in a lawful way but also stamp out firearm retailers and deny their customers the ability to shop online and purchase firearms, which can only be transferred by the retailer to the customer in a face-to-face transaction after a mandatory FBI background check. A Biden-Harris administration would end the online sale of ammunition and all gun parts, eliminating the right Americans have enjoyed since the founding of our nation to make and assemble their own firearm. They claim to support “gun safety” but want to make it difficult if not impossible for gun owners to repair their own firearms. Lastly, Biden and his running mate U.S. Sen. Kamala Harris (D-Calif.) would ration (limit) the exercise of the Second Amendment by restricting law abiding Americans to purchasing just one firearm a month which is National Registration of all firearms by law-abiding citizens. This is a constraint of which has never been considered and would never be tolerated for any individual right contained in the Bill of Rights.

More than 5 million Americans purchased a firearm for the first time in 2020, based on a National Shooting Sports Foundation retailer survey. Fully 40 percent of these new gun owners are women. The largest increase of any demographic is among African-Americans, which skyrocketed 58 percent over 2019. To date, more than 13.8 million background checks have been completed for the sale of a firearm, surpassing 2019’s full-year total of nearly 13.2 million.

We at SAFE Inc. strongly oppose these unconstitutional proposals of the Biden-Harris campaign and encourages all Americans to vote on Election Day to protect their Second Amendment rights. Moreover, we strongly urge all gun owners and future gun owners to support all candidates of the Republican Party because we need to take control of the Congress as well as the US Senate. President Trump absolutely needs to be re-elected so that laws reinforcing the firearms rights of lawful citizens can and will be passed with the full support of the entire Congress and Senate. With a Republican majority of the Congress and US Senate in power we can finally pass laws that restore the rights of citizens such as the right to self defense without having to retreat. Laws can be passed that would indemnify a self defense shooting so that family members of a criminal cannot sue you in a civil court.

Gun Control on All Fronts. From banks that no longer lend money to businesses that manufacture semi-automatic rifles, to the AMA’s latest anti-gun statements, the gun control crowd is using every means possible to spread anti-gun propaganda. Make no mistake about it, the AMA’s latest announcement has the potential to target millions of law-abiding gun owners nationwide. If they can’t succeed through conventional political means, gun controllers will storm into the boardrooms and halls of civil society instead.

Wells Fargo Bank refuses to bend to teachers union’s anti-gun demands. The American Federation of Teachers (AFT), one of the nation’s largest teachers’ unions, urged Wells Fargo to cut all ties with the National Rifle Association and all other gun clients with which the bank is affiliated. “We are heartened by the many companies and corporate leaders that have taken steps to end this gun epidemic and promote gun safety measures,” AFT president Randi Weingarten wrote in a letter to Wells Fargo CEO, Timothy Sloan.  “We applaud the firms that have reversed their policies around gun sales and military-style assault weapons since the massacre at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School that stole 17 lives. “We hope Wells Fargo will consider such measures,” Weingarten continued. “We were alarmed to read in multiple media reports that your bank ‘has been the largest backer, by far, of two of the biggest publicly traded gun companies in the U.S.’ and has provided financial support for the National Rifle Association.”

However, Sloan didn’t budge, but responded to Weingarten in a letter, saying, “We believe that the best way to make progress on the complex issues concerning gun violence is through the political and legislative process in which all citizens have the opportunity to participate.”

Wells Fargo evaluates the bank’s relationships with gun manufacturers to ensure each company adheres to all state and federal laws before accepting them as customers. “When dealing with the safety of our families, children, and other issues of this magnitude, there are no easy or satisfying solutions,” Sloan wrote. “In fact, as I have publicly stated, I do not believe that the American public wants banks to decide which legal products consumers can and cannot buy.”

Wells Fargo helped 1,600 AFT families with home financing in 2017. The bank also raised its Neighborhood LIFT program (down payment assistance) allowable median income to 100 percent for teachers as a way to express gratitude for what they do their communities.

AFT claimed in its letter that NRA leadership “has launched shameful personal attacks on educators and the student survivors of mass shootings.” The union also requested information on the bank’s financial dealings with the NRA, specifically about lines of credit and fees collected from business transactions.

We’re issuing Wells Fargo an ultimatum,” Weingarten said in a statement. “They can have a mortgage market that includes America’s teachers, or they can continue to do business with the NRA and gun manufacturers. They can’t do both.”

(Also check our events page for the other upcoming events!)

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On Thursday, June 26th, 2008 the US Supreme Court ruled that Americans have a right to own firearms for self-defense as well as hunting. This is the justices' first major pronouncement on gun rights in U.S. history. The court's 5-4 ruling struck down the District of Columbia's 32-year-old ban on handguns as not compatible with firearms rights under the Second Amendment. Prior to this decision the court had not conclusively interpreted the Second Amendment since its ratification in 1791. The amendment reads: "A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed."

The basic issue for the justices was whether the amendment protects an individual's right to own guns no matter what, or whether that right is somehow tied to service in a state militia. Justice Antonin Scalia, writing for the majority of his colleagues, said the Constitution does not permit "the absolute prohibition of handguns held and used for self-defense in the home." Joining Scalia were Chief Justice John Roberts and Justices Samuel Alito, Anthony Kennedy and Clarence Thomas. Justices John Paul Stevens, Stephen Breyer, Ruth Bader Ginsburg and David Souter dissented from the majority opinion.

Dick Anthony Heller, 66, an armed security guard, sued the District after it rejected his application to keep a handgun at his home for protection in the same Capitol Hill neighborhood as the court. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia ruled in Heller's favor and struck down Washington's handgun ban, saying the Constitution guarantees Americans the right to own guns and that a total prohibition on handguns is not compatible with that right. The law adopted by the Washington DC city council in 1976 bars residents from owning handguns unless they had one before the law took effect. This is the first step in restoring the rights of the American people with regard to firearms ownership and possession and ultimately their use. It is a good beginning.

Click here to read SAFE Legal Advisor
Robert P. Firriolo's opinion on the Supreme Court Decision

Click here to read the to Read The Case In Full

If you want our 2nd Amendment tomorrow...
Teach a child today!


- Amendment II [1791] -
A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State,
the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.

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